Thermophilic Campylobacter in turkeys in Germany

Pages: 103
Language: English
Publication date: 12/09/2013
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Dissertation Veterinärmedizin
Thermophilic Campylobacter in turkeys in Germany
Epidemiology, genotyping and antimicrobial sensitivity studies

Campylobacter has emerged as food born pathogen with increasing concern replaced Salmonellae especially in developed countries (EFSA, 2012a).
In poultry production, Campylobacter contamination is undeniably a major food safety issue. The majority of research on Campylobacter infections focused on broilers, however, turkeys have also been identified as an important reservoir for Campylobacter. Therefore, there is a need to focus attention on mechanisms of transmission and epidemiology under commercial operations coupled with molecular tracking of involved strains. Detection and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter by conventional culture methods and biochemical identification is time and cost intensive. In contrast, multiplex PCR used for detection of thermophilic Campylobacter is characterized by speed, reliability and cost efficiency (Denis et al., 1999; Denis et al., 2001; Lund et al., 2003; Perko-Mäkelä et al., 2009). The method can be applied for direct detection of pathogen DNA extracted from clinical samples (Lund et al., 2003; El-Adawy et al., 2012a).
Genetic diversity among thermophilic Campylobacter spp. may enable its survival in the environment (Parkhill et al., 2000). Molecular typing tools have improved our understanding of the epidemiology of bacterial food-borne pathogens (Wassenaar and Newell, 2000). Genetic profiles are different according the used molecular typing methods (El-Adawy et al., 2013).
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter in particular to those antibiotics used to treat human illness has been increased (EFSA, 2012b). Campylobacters isolated from turkeys have a high level of resistance to antibiotics (Ge et al., 2003).
For clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis, a macrolide is considered to be the drug of choice, but fluoroquinolons and tetracycline are also frequently applied (Luangtongkum et al., 2009). These drugs are also used in poultry production and might result in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Molecular techniques to study antibiotics resistance mechanisms are useful tools for monitoring programs (Zirnstein et al., 1999; Vacher et al., 2003; Mazi et al., 2008).
Beside Campylobacter several other bacteria could be isolated from turkey house and environemt. During the present investigations Ochrobactrum species were isolated.
The aim of this work is to investigate several aspects of the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in turkey production. These include:
1. Development of modified mPCR for detection of DNA of thermophilic campylobacters.
2. Investigation of genetic diversity and dynamics of C. jejuni among a fattening turkey flock.
4. Determination of antimicrobial sensitivities among C. jejuni isolated from turkey farms in Germany.
5. Molecular detection of resistance of C. jejuni gens to clinically relavent antibiotics namely erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline.
6. Study of the phenotypic and genotypic characters, and antimicrobial sensitivity of two Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from turkey flock.
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